Iron-Deficiency Anemia

Iron is part of the make-up of hemoglobin and myoglobin (“heme”, as in blood; “myo”, as in muscle). These substances have the remarkable ability to grab onto or release oxygen and carbon dioxide at the right times and places. Anemia from iron deficiency is aptly called “iron-deficiency anemia”, resulting in pallor and weakness. The anemia of children is due to either some subtle form of blood loss or inadequate intake of iron, either in elemental form or organic form. A simple look at red blood cells is diagnostic for iron-deficiency anemia. A little red meat and many vegetable sources, and the amount in a typical multivitamin/mineral preparation, do a good job of prevention. Giving vitamin C along with iron can enhance the correction of iron-deficiency anemia.

Minerals, which are chemically and nutritionally different from vitamins, have an excellent safety record, but not quite as good as vitamins. On the average, one or two fatalities per year are typically attributed to iron poisoning from gross overdosing on supplemental iron. Deaths attributed to other supplemental minerals are extremely rare. Even iron, although not as safe as vitamins, accounts for fewer deaths than do laundry and dishwashing detergents. Do not allow your child unfettered access to multivitamins containing iron (most iron-containing supplements have child-resistant caps as well). The amount of iron in multivitamins, even when taken twice daily, is fine. There were zero deaths in 2008-2009 from any mineral supplement, according to the U.S. National Poison Data System. This means there were no fatalities from calcium, magnesium, chromium, zinc, colloidal silver, selenium, iron, or multimineral supplements.

Kale Chips Rock! Eating and Growing Healthy Every Day

We’re cooking up a buzz about kale chips!

Hold on – what are kale chips anyway? Kale is a leafy, green vegetable that’s related to cauliflower, broccoli, and head cabbage. It can be grown locally, and it is rich in vitamins, minerals, and anti-oxidants. So kale chips are really kale leaves, chopped and briefly baked with a bit of olive oil and a sprinkle of salt. MMMM! These easy-to-make chips taste amazingly like deep-fried potato chips!

So why the buzz about kale chips? Because they are so MUCH better for us than potato chips! What an intriguing alternative when over-indulgence is oh-so-easy. The Delaware Urban Farm Coalition advocates for healthy and tasty options every day, and we’re working hard to create a buzz for kale chips that’ll be serious competition for the latest junk food fad.

So why doesn’t everyone just buy some kale and cook it? The Delaware Urban Farm Coalition is wrestling with this dilemma: kale and other fresh produce that is relatively easy to grow, store, and prepare is not readily available to many residents in and near Wilmington.

What are we doing to solve this dilemma?

Since its formation in 2008, The Delaware Urban Farm Coalition, facilitated by the Delaware Center for Horticulture, has sought to expand the growing of fruits and vegetables in and near Wilmington; improve access to a variety of healthy foods for those who currently don’t have wide access; and, provide information regarding healthy eating. 

The work of the Coalition is well known in Wilmington, but what about Newark, New Castle, and greater New Castle County?  As interim chair of the Delaware Urban Farm Coalition, I’d like to tell you more about this energetic and motivated coalition.  The Delaware Urban Farm Coalition jump-started Delaware’s first urban farm at 12th and Brandywine Streets in Wilmington as their flagship effort. Comprising 1,600 square feet of three-season raised beds, the Urban Farm is situated in the 11th Street Bridge Neighborhood where the nearest grocery store is two miles away. Crops grown at the Farm, and sold to residents through a weekly farmer’s market include kale (yes!), collards, tomatoes, chard, onions, and blackberries, amongst many others. The Farm also includes another 1,200 square feet of raised beds for community members to grow their own vegetables, fruits, and flowers.

But there’s still so much more to be done! That’s why the Delaware Urban Farm Coalition organized the Wilmington area’s first annual “Growing Local, Staying Local, Eating Local” urban agriculture summit in October, 2011. Almost 100 persons attended the summit; they represented farmers, children’s health advocates, and community gardeners, among many others. Summarizing their discussions through the kale chips lens puts it all into perspective: “How do we create buzz about kale, kale chips, and other healthy vegetables and fruit?” Their ideas and suggestions fell into these three main categories:

1.  Grow more kale. Establish more school and community gardens in our neighborhoods that allow adults and children alike to learn how easy it is to grow kale, and to see how kale looks, feels, and tastes.


2.  Make more kale available. Transport even more kale from nearby urban and rural farms into our neighborhood corner stores; fresh kale can be stored for a week or so at cool temperatures.

3.  Eat more kale. Educate city residents about the nutritional value of kale, and spread the word about how to make those tasty and nutritious kale chips.

Members of the Delaware Urban Farm Coalition are deeply committed to implementing the summit attendees’ recommendations in practical, creative, and collaborative ways. 

The Delaware Center for Horticulture, which hosts the Delaware Urban Farm Coalition, cultivates a greener community; inspiring appreciation and improvement of our environment through horticulture, education and conservation. To learn more about the DCH, contact Tara Tracy, Urban Agriculture Manager at:  The Delaware Urban Farm Coalition is on Facebook- “LIKE” us to keep learning about the Coalition and the issues we’re addressing.  Requests for additional information can be directed to, Delaware Urban Farm Coalition, Interim Chair, and Extension Educator for Horticulture, New Castle County Master Gardener Coordinator, with the University of Delaware Cooperative Extension.



These are healthy and low calorie, and you cannot stop at just eating one! Kale chips are a great party or movie night snack. Try different seasoning combinations, too.


1 bunch kale (4-5 cups)

1 TBS olive oil (olive oil spray works especially well!)

1 TSP sea salt or seasoned salt

1 TSP vinegar


1. Preheat oven to 325 degrees. Line a non-insulated cookie sheet with parchment paper.

2. With a knife or kitchen shears, carefully remove the leaves from the thick stems and tear into bite size pieces. Wash and thoroughly dry kale pieces with a salad spinner. Drizzle chips with olive oil or spray with olive oil and sprinkle with seasoning. Feel free to experiment with various seasonings that you and your family like.

3. Bake until the edges brown but are not burnt, between 10 to 20 minutes. Gently stir leaves halfway through baking.

You should know more about vitamins

This week’s lesson is about vitamins. Before you let out a big yawn, let me assure you that eating foods rich in a variety of vitamins can make your life pretty darned exciting. After all, who wouldn’t like to reduce their risk of disease and feel more energized? Good, now you’re paying attention.

Vitamins are essential nutrients that play a central role in maintaining good health. Vitamins are “team players,” and understanding their functions is easier if you think about their roles in important bodily functions, such as antioxidant activity, maintaining healthy blood, bone growth and maintenance and energy metabolism.

Beta-carotene, Vitamin C and Vitamin E are antioxidant vitamins, because are able to neutralize free radicals (unstable oxygen molecules) that are generated in the body from normal metabolic reactions, pollutants in the environment, cigarette smoke and even sunlight. The free radicals can wreak havoc in the body and contribute to chronic disease and cancer, as they damage cell membranes, DNA and even oxidize LDL-cholesterol so that it invades artery walls.

It is recommended that smokers get more vitamin C than nonsmokers, since the cigarette smoke the person inhales generates more free radicals. Vitamin C is also needed for collagen production, which forms the foundation of our bones, teeth, skin and tendons. The jury is still out regarding vitamin C and curing the common cold, but some people swear by it. I say you’ll never go wrong adding a few extra oranges to your diet!

Healthy blood is dependent on the B vitamins, folate, B12, B6 and vitamin K. Specifically, folate and B12 are necessary to form new red blood cells. A deficiency of either of these will result in anemia. However, a prolonged deficiency of B12 alone will also lead to nerve damage, since B12 is needed to maintain the integrity of nerve fibers. Folate also plays a critical role in the prevention of neural tube defects in a developing embryo.

B6 is needed to make hemoglobin, the molecule that carries oxygen in the blood cells and is a player in protein metabolism. Vitamin K is needed for blood to clot normally after an injury, and people on blood thinners need to moderate their intake of vitamin K-rich foods, so their medication can do its job.

Our bones require a number of vitamins, along with minerals (calcium and phosphorus) and hormones. Most notably, vitamin D helps regulate calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, to allow bones to get the calcium they need. Vitamins K and C also assist with bone health. Foods are not the sole source of vitamin D since, we make it in the skin when we are exposed to sunlight.

Although vitamins do not provide calories, they are needed to derive the energy from the foods we eat. The B vitamins — thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and biotin — are able to do this job well by assisting the enzymes that control the metabolic pathways.

Experts say that the best way to get your vitamins is from foods, because they work in synergy with other compounds in the food to give you benefits nature intended. Most processed foods (like ready-to-eat cereals and breads) are fortified with vitamins, to ensure their presence in the food supply.

Vitamin supplements are usually not necessary for people who eat adequate calories and a balanced diet. Certain individuals who benefit from vitamin supplements are pregnant women, the elderly and people who have special nutrient requirements.

Take the time to read more about good food sources for each vitamin, and choose your foods with these vitamins in mind. Remember that mixing up your diet will help you achieve good vitamin balance; not too much of this or too little of that.

Here’s a list to get you started:

Beta-carotene: carrots, sweet potato, spinach

Vitamin C: papaya, cantaloupe, orange

Vitamin E: almonds, sunflower seeds, peanut butter

Folate: lentils, asparagus, broccoli

B6: baked potato, chicken breast, banana

B12: chicken liver, ground beef, egg

Vitamin K: kale, Brussels sprouts, spinach

Vitamin D: sunshine, salmon, fat-free milk

Nina Marinello, Ph.D., is the chairwoman of Nutrition Science at The Sage Colleges, Troy.

Fit as a Family, presented by Albany Medical Center in partnership with Capital District YMCA and Price Chopper, is a six-month Times Union project intended to help our community live healthier. Look for information in the newspaper, HealthyLife magazine and on, and join us at fun, informative community events.

Join in:

At every event you attend, you can enter to win the Fit as a Family grand prize, to be presented in June. Learn more at Like us on Facebook at

Upcoming, to read:

March 19: Christina Economos, a professor from Tufts University, will discuss her Shape Up Somerville initiative in the Capital Region section of the Times Union.


March 26: The Sage Colleges CDPHP Nutrition Lecture Series, 7 p.m. Monday, March 26, at Bush Memorial, Russell Sage College, Troy.

April 28: Healthy Kids Day at Capital District YMCAs.

May 5: Capital District YMCA Healthy Community Series 5K Run, 3K Walk, and Kids Fun Run set for Washington Park in Albany. Learn more at

Long-term use of vitamins and supplements may bring a quicker death

Lots of my friends take dietary supplements. By various reckonings, about half of Americans do. (Some people take crazy amounts). I don’t because I’ve always been skeptical that they’re really necessary.

As it turns out they may actually be a bit dangerous.

Last October a study published in Archives of Internal Medicine (see abstract)  found that, in older women, several commonly used dietary vitamin and mineral supplements led to higher rates of death.

The study of nearly 40,000 women enrolled in the Iowa Women’s Health Study found a 15 percent increased risk of death associated with taking folic acid supplements, 10 percent with iron supplements, and a lesser risk with other supplements.

Load up the shopping cart. (Bexley Natural Market)

Now it’s worth noting that the study found an association between mortality and these supplements, which is far from stating a cause and effect. Nevertheless the findings were interesting. Especially in light of a new study reported by Live Science, of elderly Finnish people.

During a 10-year period 59 of the 221 people (26.6 percent) taking a vitamin or supplement died, compared to 281 of the 1,553 people (18.1 percent) of those who did not take supplements.

Now these studies are far from conclusive, but they suggest its possible that overloading on supplemental vitamins and minerals, over a long period of time, may have some deleterious consequences.

As always, it seems, moderation is the best policy.

Antioxidants Studies

As everyone knows, eating and drinking are necessary for life. Less well known, however, is the fact that the body generates what are called free radicals in the process of turning food into energy. Free radicals are chemicals that are capable of damaging cells and genetic material. But eating is not the only way free radicals spring into being. The food we eat and the sunlight we feel also generate free radicals.

To be sure, free radicals come in many shapes, sizes, and chemical configurations. The characteristic feature of this chemical is that it soaks up electrons from bodily substances that yield them, which can leave the “loser’s” structure or function radically altered. Free radical damage can change the instructions coded in a strand of DNA; it can also make a circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL, sometimes called bad cholesterol) molecule more likely to get trapped in an artery wall. Free radicals also have the potential to alter a cell’s membrane, changing the flow of what enters the cell and what leaves it.

Fortunately, we aren’t defenseless against free radicals. The body puts up natural defenses against free radicals by making molecules that smothers the errant chemicals. We also extract free-radical fighters from food. Often called “antioxidants”, certain kinds of food give electrons to free-radicals without themselves turning into electron-scavenging substances. There are many different substances that can act as antioxidants. The most familiar ones are vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and other related carotenoids, along with the minerals selenium and manganese. They’re joined by glutathione, coenzyme Q10, lipoic acid, flavonoids, phenols, polyphenols, phytoestrogens, and many more.

However, the term “antioxidant” can be misleading. These substances do not emit chemical properties that fight so much as they emit properties that facilitate. Indeed, some substances that act as antioxidants in one situation may be prooxidants—electron grabbers—in a different chemical milieu. Another big misconception is that antioxidants are interchangeable. This is not true. Each anti-oxidant has unique chemical behaviors and biological properties. It is believed, and has been strongly corroborated through scientific study, that anti-oxidants evolved as parts of elaborate networks, each substance having a different role to play. It follows that no single substance can fulfill the function of every other substance.

Health Benefits of Antioxidants: What’s the Buzz?

Antioxidants came to public attention in the 1990s. It was then that scientists began to understand that free radical damage was involved in the early stages of artery-clogging atherosclerosis, and that the chemicals may contribute to cancer, vision loss, and a host of other chronic conditions. A number of studies stated that people with low intakes of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables were at greater risk for developing these chronic conditions than were people who ate sufficient amounts fruits and vegetables. Clinical trials tested the impact of single substances, especially beta-carotene and vitamin E, on cancer, heart disease, and similar maladies. But even before the results of these trials were in, the media, and the dietary supplement and food industries began promoting the benefits of “antioxidants.” Foods such as frozen berries and green tea were hyped as being rich in antioxidants. The consequences of this publicity were predictable: certain foods were labeled as rich in antioxidants and were marketed as such in stores; the makers of dietary supplements began touting the disease-fighting properties of all sorts of antioxidants.

In the meantime, the results of the actual trials were mixed. Most have not found the hoped-for benefits. And research teams reported that vitamin E and other antioxidant supplements didn’t protect against heart disease or cancer. One study even showed that taking beta-carotene may actually increase the chances of developing lung cancer in smokers. However, some of the trials reported benefits. One such study found that taking beta-carotene is associated with a modest reduction in the rate of cognitive decline.

The rather most, if not downright disappointing, results of the antioxidant trials have not stopped the commercial interests from misrepresenting the benefits of antioxidants in order to make money. Antioxidant supplements are a $500 million dollar industry that continues to grow. Antioxidants are still added to breakfast cereals, sports bars, energy drinks, and other processed foods, and they are promoted as additives that can prevent heart disease, cancer, cataracts, memory loss, and a host of other conditions. The claims made by the food and dietary supplement industries often distort the data. It is true that the package of antioxidants, minerals, fiber, and other substances found naturally in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains help prevent a variety of chronic diseases; but there is no solid evidence that high doses of antioxidants can accomplish the same feat. The conclusion is clear: randomized, placebo-controlled trials—which, when performed well, provide the strongest evidence—offer little support that taking vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, or other single antioxidants provides substantial protection against heart disease, cancer, or other chronic conditions. The results of the largest such trials have been mostly negative.

Heart Disease and Antioxidants

Vitamin E, beta-carotene, and other so-called antioxidants are not a panacea for heart disease and should not be promoted as such. In the Women’s Health Study, 39,876 initially healthy women took 600 IU of natural source vitamin E or a placebo every other day for 10 years. The results of the study showed that the rates of major cardiovascular events and cancer were no lower among those taking vitamin E than they were among those taking the placebo; however, a 24 percent reduction in total cardiovascular mortality was observed, which can be considered a quite significant result.

Earlier large vitamin E trials, conducted among individuals with previously diagnosed coronary disease or at high risk for it, generally showed no benefit. In the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) trial, the rates of major cardiovascular events were essentially the same in the vitamin E (21.5 percent) and placebo (20.6 percent) groups, although participants taking vitamin E had higher risks of heart failure and hospitalization for heart failure. (3) Another trial, the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto Miocardico (GISSI), showed mixed results; there were no preventive effects after more than three years of treatment with vitamin E among 11,000 heart attack survivors. Nevertheless, some studies suggest potential benefits among certain subgroups. A recent trial of vitamin E in Israel, for example, showed a marked reduction in coronary heart disease among people with type 2 diabetes who have a common genetic predisposition for greater oxidative stress. In any case, Beta-carotene, as was shown in the Physicians’s Health Study, does not provide any protection against heart disease or stroke.

There have been combinations, but the findings are complicated and unclear. In the Supplementation en Vitamins et Mineraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) study, 13,017 French men and women took a single daily capsule that contained 120 milligrams of vitamin C, 30 milligrams of vitamin E, 6 milligrams of beta-carotene, 100 micrograms of selenium, and 20 milligrams of zinc, or a placebo, for seven and a half years. The vitamins had no effect on overall rates of cardiovascular disease. In the Women’s Antioxidant Cardiovascular Study, vitamin E, vitamin C, and/or beta-carotene had much the same effect as a placebo on myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, or cardiovascular death, although there was a modest and significant benefit for vitamin E among women with existing cardiovascular disease.

Cancer and Antioxidants

There is also no conclusive proof that antioxidants help prevent cancer. Scientists need more time to determine the impact of antioxidants on the risk of getting cancer. In the long-term Physicians’ Health Study, cancer rates were similar among men taking beta-carotene and among those taking a placebo. Other trials have also largely showed no effect, including HOPE. The SU.VI.MAX trial showed a reduction in cancer risk and all-cause mortality among men taking an antioxidant cocktail but no apparent effect in women; it is possible that this is a result of the men in the study having low blood levels of beta-carotene at its beginning. A randomized trial of selenium in people with skin cancer demonstrated significant reductions in cancer and cancer mortality at various sites, including colon, lung, and prostate. The effects were strongest among those with low selenium levels at baseline.

Age-Related Eye Disease and Antioxidants

The effects of antioxidants on age-related eye disease may be one of the most hopeful leads scientists have. A six-year trial, the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), found that a combination of vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and zinc provided some protection against the development of advanced age-related macular degeneration in people who were at high risk of the disease. Lutein, a naturally occurring carotenoid found in green, leafy vegetables such as spinach and kale, may also protect vision. It is too early to tell what the impact of lutein supplements may be. The trials of such substances have been relatively short, and their ability to slow or prevent age-related macular degeneration has not been ascertained. A new trial of the AREDS supplement regimen plus lutein, zeaxanthin, and fish oil is underway, and it could yield better information.

Potential Hazards of Antioxidants

There have been a few studies which showed that the consumption of antioxidants, as opposed to being beneficial in all instances or at least harmless in fact can interfere with the health of the consumer. The first trial which showed this possible negative effect was undertaken in Finland where heavy smokers were fed beta-carotene. Because of their smoking habits there was a already a lung cancer risk but it was noticed that a significant increase in the incidence of lung cancer amongst the trial group as opposed to the placebo. The trial was stopped so conclusive results are hard to deduce.

A different test which was conducted with heavy smokers exposed to asbestos being fed beta-carotene and vitamin A. This too shows an increase in the incidence of Lung cancer. It must be emphasized that not all trials of Beta-carotene have been negative. A physicians health study which only had a few smokers did not show any significant differences even when followed up after 18 years.

In a separate study showing possible negative effects of a variety of health supplements showed a higher incidence of skin cancer in women being fed supplements of Vitamins C & E, Beta-carotene, selenium and zinc.

Conclusions to be drawn from the above studies, amongst others, is that it is known that although free radicals have been shown to contribute to the incidence of heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s and even vision loss, there is no automatic conclusion that can be drawn that antioxidants will fix the problem. And certainly not when consumed away from their normal context.

Studies to date do not show conclusive evidence one way or another but there is certainly no strong evidence to suggest that antioxidants are effective against disease. A rider must be mentioned and that is that the trials conducted till now have been short in duration, conducted with people some of whom had an existing disease.

There has been a noticeable benefit to the consumption of beta-carotene on cognitive ability after 18 years. This is exceptional as it is the only study to have continued so long. (Physicians health follow up study) Nevertheless there is abundant evidence suggests that eating whole fruits, vegetables, and whole grains—all rich in networks of antioxidants and their helper molecules—provides protection against many of these scourges of aging.

Clarification with regard to supplemental studies

There are any number of studies conducted on any number of vitamins and other dietary supplements that are often contradictory. The picture presented to the consumer is confusing and will often seem frustrating in that instead of clarifying things these studies muddy the waters.

Examining exactly what the vitamins trial study did will often go some way to explaining the varying results. Here are a few items to check when looking at apparently conflicting vitamins studies.

  • What was the precise dosage taken by the participants and how long was the study’s duration. This is significant as few studies will have identical dosages and identical time spans. A study in Vitamin D showed that a dosage of 700 plus IU per day had a significant protection against fractures whereas a study of people taking only 400 IU per day showed no such effect. The same applies to the duration as the build up of the protective mechanisms is not a short process.
  • The age, health and life styles of the participants. Studies drawn from young, active gym going participants is likely to differ significantly from heavy drink and smoking office workers. Exercise and other lifestyle choices such as diet affect out health and how the body responds to vitamins.
  • At what stage is was the supplement fed to a study participant. If studying the effect of a supplement on someone already suffering from a disease it may be found that something taken at the onset has a differing effect from something taken when a disease is far advanced. An example being that Folate supplements are only effective against neural tube defects in the early stages of pregnancy.
  • How were the results tabulated and calculated. This is a significant problem as measurement as to benefit may and probably will vary widely. Heart disease is a wide subject and a measurement of coronary thrombosis may miss out on the incidence of strokes.



Electrolytes are molecules in your plasma – the liquid portion of your blood – that maintain either a positive or negative charge. These charges allow them to respond to messages from your nervous system by conducting electrical currents through your body, enabling and regulating many bodily functions and systems. Chloride is one of your body’s most important electrolytes. It is located in the extracellular fluid compartments – area outside the cells. Your body’s chloride levels are directly related to its sodium levels.

Functions of Chloride in your body

• Balances the fluid inside and outside cells along with sodium and potassium
• Component of stomach acid
• Generates and conducts electrical signals that play roles in many bodily functions
• Maintains pH balances

Electrolyte Imbalance

It is very important that your body’s electrolytes – such as chloride, sodium, and potassium – remain at their proper levels. Electrolyte imbalance (which is also called electrolyte disturbance) can occur if any of these substances has a sudden, abnormal change. The change can be elevation or depletion of the electrolyte, and may be due to renal failure or water loss, such as from long-time laxative abuse or excessive vomiting, diarrhea, or sweating. Therefore, sufferers of anorexia and bulimia are at particularly high risk. Electrolyte imbalance is usually the result of an underlying problem, such as dehydration or dysfunction of the endocrine system or kidneys, and is usually corrected by treating the initial problem. If an electrolyte imbalance is left untreated, it can cause heart-related issues, organ failure, problems with the nervous system, or death.

Chloride deficiency (Hypochloremia)

Chloride can exit the body through urine, sweat, or vomit, or from kidney or adrenal gland disease. Hypochloremia occurs when too much chloride exits the body, resulting in a deficiency. Although there are often no symptoms, some people experience headaches, nausea, or cardiac arrest. Others experience water loss and dehydration.

Chloride Elevation (Hyperchloremia)

Although there are often no symptoms, some people with elevated levels of chloride also experience dehydration, diarrhea, muscle tension, or kidney disease. Diabetics with elevated chloride levels have a very difficult time maintaining healthy blood sugar levels. There is usually an underlying cause of this disorder, and treatment should involve pinpointing and treating this problem.

Food sources of chloride

Most people get a majority of their chloride from table salt or sea salt. (Salt also contains potassium and sodium). Chloride can also be found in the foods – celery, lettuce, olives and tomatoes.

Because salt is so common in most of diets, it is usually not necessary to take supplements or eat more salt-containing foods. However, some people do need to add salt to their diets. People with adrenal failure, for example, need to increase their salt intake. Your healthcare provider can help determine whether or not you need more or less salt in your diet.

Possible side effects of excess chloride consumption

Any excess of chloride is usually removed from the body in urine. However, be cautious about consuming too much salt, which also contains sodium and potassium, and may contribute to muscle cramps, heartburn, dizziness, high blood pressure, or even electrolyte disturbances in people who are susceptible to this condition.

Many vitamins and enzymes need a mineral co-factor to function properly. The USANA Vitamins Chelated Mineral supplement is a carefully USANA formulated balance of essential minerals and ultra trace minerals sourced from the highest quality suppliers in forms readily absorbed by the body.