Why Antioxidants Don't Belong in Your Workout

Why Antioxidants Don&#39t Belong in Your Workout
Antioxidant vitamins are enormously common with individuals who exercise. The dietary supplements are believed to alleviate muscle injury and amplify the results of physical exercise. But latest studies have raised queries about regardless of whether antioxidants may well be&nbsp…
Go through more on New York Times (site)

Eating More? Drinking A lot more? Sleeping Less? You Need to have to Read through This Submit
Prior to you start off popping capsules, it&#39s crucial that you do high quality management considering that rules close to nutritional vitamins and supplements are notoriously murky and what you see isn&#39t constantly what you get. Whittel&#39s ideas: one. Go to a trustworthy retailer like Total …
Go through a lot more on Folks StyleWatch

5 vitamins the entire body wants in winter
Despite the fact that vitamin D is needed all round the 12 months, the boring climate and the falling temperature helps make the consumption of this vitamin all the a lot more vital.&quotIt is very essential to step out in the sun for at least a even though. Bones are affected a whole lot …
Go through far more on Instances of India

Flavonoids and the risk of type-2 diabetes

New research shows that anthocyanin consumption may be associated with a decreased risk of type-2 diabetes.

Flavonoids are found in plants and serve as pigments to help attract pollinators, filter out UV light, help in nitrogen fixation, and several other roles. An important class of flavonoids is anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are powerful antioxidants and can be found in blueberries, bilberries, raspberries, grapes, and many other plants. In addition to their antioxidant capacity, data also supports a beneficial effect of anthocyanins on insulin sensitivity. However few studies have looked at their effect on type-2 diabetes.

An article published this month in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition looked at the relationship between flavonoids and type-2 diabetes. Researchers analyzed data from 70,359 women in the Nurses’ Health Study, 89,201 women in the NHS II, and 41,334 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. The mean age of the participants was 50, and all of the individuals examined were free of diabetes at baseline. Follow-up revealed that 12,611 cases of diabetes had developed since initial screening. Participants were asked how often, on average, they consumed different foods. Flavonoid content in each of the foods was analyzed to determine total flavonoid intake. Flavonoid intake was also broken down into five subcategories, they were: flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins. The researchers found that anthocyanin consumption was associated with a decreased occurrence of type-2 diabetes. These results were observed consistently across all three study groups examined.

In addition to regular exercise and maintaining a healthy weight, a diet in flavonoid-rich fruits and vegetables may be a beneficial strategy to help lower the risk of type-2 diabetes.

Antioxidants Studies

As everyone knows, eating and drinking are necessary for life. Less well known, however, is the fact that the body generates what are called free radicals in the process of turning food into energy. Free radicals are chemicals that are capable of damaging cells and genetic material. But eating is not the only way free radicals spring into being. The food we eat and the sunlight we feel also generate free radicals.

To be sure, free radicals come in many shapes, sizes, and chemical configurations. The characteristic feature of this chemical is that it soaks up electrons from bodily substances that yield them, which can leave the “loser’s” structure or function radically altered. Free radical damage can change the instructions coded in a strand of DNA; it can also make a circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL, sometimes called bad cholesterol) molecule more likely to get trapped in an artery wall. Free radicals also have the potential to alter a cell’s membrane, changing the flow of what enters the cell and what leaves it.

Fortunately, we aren’t defenseless against free radicals. The body puts up natural defenses against free radicals by making molecules that smothers the errant chemicals. We also extract free-radical fighters from food. Often called “antioxidants”, certain kinds of food give electrons to free-radicals without themselves turning into electron-scavenging substances. There are many different substances that can act as antioxidants. The most familiar ones are vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and other related carotenoids, along with the minerals selenium and manganese. They’re joined by glutathione, coenzyme Q10, lipoic acid, flavonoids, phenols, polyphenols, phytoestrogens, and many more.

However, the term “antioxidant” can be misleading. These substances do not emit chemical properties that fight so much as they emit properties that facilitate. Indeed, some substances that act as antioxidants in one situation may be prooxidants—electron grabbers—in a different chemical milieu. Another big misconception is that antioxidants are interchangeable. This is not true. Each anti-oxidant has unique chemical behaviors and biological properties. It is believed, and has been strongly corroborated through scientific study, that anti-oxidants evolved as parts of elaborate networks, each substance having a different role to play. It follows that no single substance can fulfill the function of every other substance.

Health Benefits of Antioxidants: What’s the Buzz?

Antioxidants came to public attention in the 1990s. It was then that scientists began to understand that free radical damage was involved in the early stages of artery-clogging atherosclerosis, and that the chemicals may contribute to cancer, vision loss, and a host of other chronic conditions. A number of studies stated that people with low intakes of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables were at greater risk for developing these chronic conditions than were people who ate sufficient amounts fruits and vegetables. Clinical trials tested the impact of single substances, especially beta-carotene and vitamin E, on cancer, heart disease, and similar maladies. But even before the results of these trials were in, the media, and the dietary supplement and food industries began promoting the benefits of “antioxidants.” Foods such as frozen berries and green tea were hyped as being rich in antioxidants. The consequences of this publicity were predictable: certain foods were labeled as rich in antioxidants and were marketed as such in stores; the makers of dietary supplements began touting the disease-fighting properties of all sorts of antioxidants.

In the meantime, the results of the actual trials were mixed. Most have not found the hoped-for benefits. And research teams reported that vitamin E and other antioxidant supplements didn’t protect against heart disease or cancer. One study even showed that taking beta-carotene may actually increase the chances of developing lung cancer in smokers. However, some of the trials reported benefits. One such study found that taking beta-carotene is associated with a modest reduction in the rate of cognitive decline.

The rather most, if not downright disappointing, results of the antioxidant trials have not stopped the commercial interests from misrepresenting the benefits of antioxidants in order to make money. Antioxidant supplements are a $500 million dollar industry that continues to grow. Antioxidants are still added to breakfast cereals, sports bars, energy drinks, and other processed foods, and they are promoted as additives that can prevent heart disease, cancer, cataracts, memory loss, and a host of other conditions. The claims made by the food and dietary supplement industries often distort the data. It is true that the package of antioxidants, minerals, fiber, and other substances found naturally in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains help prevent a variety of chronic diseases; but there is no solid evidence that high doses of antioxidants can accomplish the same feat. The conclusion is clear: randomized, placebo-controlled trials—which, when performed well, provide the strongest evidence—offer little support that taking vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, or other single antioxidants provides substantial protection against heart disease, cancer, or other chronic conditions. The results of the largest such trials have been mostly negative.

Heart Disease and Antioxidants

Vitamin E, beta-carotene, and other so-called antioxidants are not a panacea for heart disease and should not be promoted as such. In the Women’s Health Study, 39,876 initially healthy women took 600 IU of natural source vitamin E or a placebo every other day for 10 years. The results of the study showed that the rates of major cardiovascular events and cancer were no lower among those taking vitamin E than they were among those taking the placebo; however, a 24 percent reduction in total cardiovascular mortality was observed, which can be considered a quite significant result.

Earlier large vitamin E trials, conducted among individuals with previously diagnosed coronary disease or at high risk for it, generally showed no benefit. In the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) trial, the rates of major cardiovascular events were essentially the same in the vitamin E (21.5 percent) and placebo (20.6 percent) groups, although participants taking vitamin E had higher risks of heart failure and hospitalization for heart failure. (3) Another trial, the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto Miocardico (GISSI), showed mixed results; there were no preventive effects after more than three years of treatment with vitamin E among 11,000 heart attack survivors. Nevertheless, some studies suggest potential benefits among certain subgroups. A recent trial of vitamin E in Israel, for example, showed a marked reduction in coronary heart disease among people with type 2 diabetes who have a common genetic predisposition for greater oxidative stress. In any case, Beta-carotene, as was shown in the Physicians’s Health Study, does not provide any protection against heart disease or stroke.

There have been combinations, but the findings are complicated and unclear. In the Supplementation en Vitamins et Mineraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) study, 13,017 French men and women took a single daily capsule that contained 120 milligrams of vitamin C, 30 milligrams of vitamin E, 6 milligrams of beta-carotene, 100 micrograms of selenium, and 20 milligrams of zinc, or a placebo, for seven and a half years. The vitamins had no effect on overall rates of cardiovascular disease. In the Women’s Antioxidant Cardiovascular Study, vitamin E, vitamin C, and/or beta-carotene had much the same effect as a placebo on myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, or cardiovascular death, although there was a modest and significant benefit for vitamin E among women with existing cardiovascular disease.

Cancer and Antioxidants

There is also no conclusive proof that antioxidants help prevent cancer. Scientists need more time to determine the impact of antioxidants on the risk of getting cancer. In the long-term Physicians’ Health Study, cancer rates were similar among men taking beta-carotene and among those taking a placebo. Other trials have also largely showed no effect, including HOPE. The SU.VI.MAX trial showed a reduction in cancer risk and all-cause mortality among men taking an antioxidant cocktail but no apparent effect in women; it is possible that this is a result of the men in the study having low blood levels of beta-carotene at its beginning. A randomized trial of selenium in people with skin cancer demonstrated significant reductions in cancer and cancer mortality at various sites, including colon, lung, and prostate. The effects were strongest among those with low selenium levels at baseline.

Age-Related Eye Disease and Antioxidants

The effects of antioxidants on age-related eye disease may be one of the most hopeful leads scientists have. A six-year trial, the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), found that a combination of vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and zinc provided some protection against the development of advanced age-related macular degeneration in people who were at high risk of the disease. Lutein, a naturally occurring carotenoid found in green, leafy vegetables such as spinach and kale, may also protect vision. It is too early to tell what the impact of lutein supplements may be. The trials of such substances have been relatively short, and their ability to slow or prevent age-related macular degeneration has not been ascertained. A new trial of the AREDS supplement regimen plus lutein, zeaxanthin, and fish oil is underway, and it could yield better information.

Potential Hazards of Antioxidants

There have been a few studies which showed that the consumption of antioxidants, as opposed to being beneficial in all instances or at least harmless in fact can interfere with the health of the consumer. The first trial which showed this possible negative effect was undertaken in Finland where heavy smokers were fed beta-carotene. Because of their smoking habits there was a already a lung cancer risk but it was noticed that a significant increase in the incidence of lung cancer amongst the trial group as opposed to the placebo. The trial was stopped so conclusive results are hard to deduce.

A different test which was conducted with heavy smokers exposed to asbestos being fed beta-carotene and vitamin A. This too shows an increase in the incidence of Lung cancer. It must be emphasized that not all trials of Beta-carotene have been negative. A physicians health study which only had a few smokers did not show any significant differences even when followed up after 18 years.

In a separate study showing possible negative effects of a variety of health supplements showed a higher incidence of skin cancer in women being fed supplements of Vitamins C & E, Beta-carotene, selenium and zinc.

Conclusions to be drawn from the above studies, amongst others, is that it is known that although free radicals have been shown to contribute to the incidence of heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s and even vision loss, there is no automatic conclusion that can be drawn that antioxidants will fix the problem. And certainly not when consumed away from their normal context.

Studies to date do not show conclusive evidence one way or another but there is certainly no strong evidence to suggest that antioxidants are effective against disease. A rider must be mentioned and that is that the trials conducted till now have been short in duration, conducted with people some of whom had an existing disease.

There has been a noticeable benefit to the consumption of beta-carotene on cognitive ability after 18 years. This is exceptional as it is the only study to have continued so long. (Physicians health follow up study) Nevertheless there is abundant evidence suggests that eating whole fruits, vegetables, and whole grains—all rich in networks of antioxidants and their helper molecules—provides protection against many of these scourges of aging.

Clarification with regard to supplemental studies

There are any number of studies conducted on any number of vitamins and other dietary supplements that are often contradictory. The picture presented to the consumer is confusing and will often seem frustrating in that instead of clarifying things these studies muddy the waters.

Examining exactly what the vitamins trial study did will often go some way to explaining the varying results. Here are a few items to check when looking at apparently conflicting vitamins studies.

  • What was the precise dosage taken by the participants and how long was the study’s duration. This is significant as few studies will have identical dosages and identical time spans. A study in Vitamin D showed that a dosage of 700 plus IU per day had a significant protection against fractures whereas a study of people taking only 400 IU per day showed no such effect. The same applies to the duration as the build up of the protective mechanisms is not a short process.
  • The age, health and life styles of the participants. Studies drawn from young, active gym going participants is likely to differ significantly from heavy drink and smoking office workers. Exercise and other lifestyle choices such as diet affect out health and how the body responds to vitamins.
  • At what stage is was the supplement fed to a study participant. If studying the effect of a supplement on someone already suffering from a disease it may be found that something taken at the onset has a differing effect from something taken when a disease is far advanced. An example being that Folate supplements are only effective against neural tube defects in the early stages of pregnancy.
  • How were the results tabulated and calculated. This is a significant problem as measurement as to benefit may and probably will vary widely. Heart disease is a wide subject and a measurement of coronary thrombosis may miss out on the incidence of strokes.

Food and drink for diabetes

Eating healthily is one of the main ways in which you can manage your diabetes and help keep your heart and blood vessels working efficiently. You may be overweight if you have Type 2 diabetes. If you want to lose weight, it’s good to know which foods to choose.

Types of food

What different types of food are there?
There are a number of main food types that, in combination, provide a healthy and balanced diet.

Why is it important not to eat too much salt, sugar, and fat?
Eating too much salt increases your risk of high blood pressure or makes high blood pressure worse if you already have it. Too much sugar can cause you to put on weight and make it more difficult for you to control your blood glucose level. Fat is high in calories and eating more than the recommended amount can lead to weight gain. Eating too much saturated fat also increases your risk of heart disease.

What are antioxidants?
Antioxidants are a group of healing substances found in foods. Vitamins A, C, and E, beta-carotene, and selenium – as well as many substances found in plants (phytochemicals) – have an antioxidant action. Eating foods that are rich in antioxidants has many health benefits, including protecting you from heart disease.

Can I take pill supplements such as fish oils, vitamins, and minerals?
You can, but a balanced and varied diet will provide all the nutrients you need to stay healthy. The only reason you might be advised to take nutritional supplements is if your healthcare team have diagnosed a deficiency. If you believe that you are deficient in a particular nutrient, your health professional will discuss possible actions with you.

Green tea is not a new concept. The Chinese and the Japanese have used it for years. Why is it now becoming so prevalent here in America?

Green tea has been used for over 4,000 years. Folklore maintains it promotes longevity, decreases cholesterol, decreases heart conditions and also helps to decrease cancer. However, the reason it’s become popular is because there’s abundant scientific evidence showing the benefits of green tea. In fact, within the past three years alone, over 50 different scientific articles have appeared in the literature which support the use of green tea for helping to prevent, treat and, in some cases, kill cancer cells.

You may be surprised to know that green tea comes from the same tree that black tea comes from. Green tea is different from black tea in that it doesn’t undergo the degree of oxidation that black tea does. Because of this, helpful antioxidants are found in much greater concentrations within green tea than they are in black tea.

Scientists believe that the protective effects of green tea arise out of a group of polyphenols called catechins. Polyphenols are a class of compounds that have strong anti-oxidant properties — meaning they have the ability to stop carcinogen-producing enzymes. The commonly drank black tea has three to ten percent polyphenols. Green tea, on the other hand, contains 30 to 42 percent polyphenols.

VITAMINS AND CORONARY DISEASE

We hear a lot of beneficial effects about certain foods and certain nutrients like the antioxidants in preventing and combating heart disease. What are your feelings about these and what are your food recommendations, if you have any?
Well I think the only proven antioxidant is Vitamin E.

This is for heart disease?
For heart disease. We give eight hundred international units of Vitamin E per day.

Are there any foods that can help fight heart disease?
Unproven nutrients include the blue, green, and red vegetables like eggplant, for example. And grapes have what we call flavonoids in them, which are powerful antioxidants. And in fact you can get grape seed extract that has flavonoids. It’s a strong source of flavonoid.

Can you find these at a health food store?
Yes, and also pine bark, and pine nuts.

These would be O.K. for people to try?
As far as I know, it’s O.K., but they are unproven. The only antioxidant that’s been proven has been fish oil and Vitamin E. So that’s what I prescribe to people.

How about red wine?
The evidence is pretty strong that red wine is beneficial and again the benefit probably comes from the hull of the red grapes, of the dark grapes that they make the wine from.

So that would be O.K., a glass of red wine?
Yes, if you didn’t drink more than ten drinks a week of red wine plus all the other- you have to count all your other alcoholic beverages too. But a glass a day of red wine I think would be good for you, although it’s not scientifically worked out. But I think most people accept that that’s probably a good thing to do.

THE BIG PICTURE

Why do we hear so much about coronary artery disease today? Is it a bigger health problem now or are doctors just more aware of it?
No, I think it’s because we can do so much more about it. The incidence rate has actually been falling until the last two or three years; now that’s gone back up a little bit. But it’s been steadily falling since the 50’s. So it’s not like suddenly we’re all getting the disease. It’s always been there. You know it used to be more than fifty percent of people died of coronary disease. Now it’s down to say thirty six or thirty seven percent.

That actually die of it – the rest are living with it?
They have it and eventually die of it. It’s still the number one killer of the western world; it’s still the number one problem in both men and women.

Working at it through some of those techniques we mentioned about the diet, exercise, and regular screening?
People that need the treatment have to be identified some way. And you can take people that have had coronary or any form of atherosclerosis as the index population and then take the first degree relatives of those and you would be getting the high risk population right there. And then you would have to through doctor’s office checkups or in some way screen the rest of the population to pick the high risk people out of the rest. That’s the way I would see doing it. It seems workable.

Source: Ivanhoe News